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Striking a Balance: Managing Hyperkalemia in Patients With Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease


Physician Assistants/Physician Associates: 1.00 AAPA Category 1 CME credit

Nurses: 1.00 Nursing contact hour

Physicians: Maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit

Released: October 23, 2023

Expiration: October 22, 2024



Biykem Bozkurt

Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FHFSA

Professor of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, Texas

Ileana L. Piña

Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, FAHA, FACC, FHFSA

Professor of Medicine
Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Provided by

Provided by Clinical Care Options, LLC.

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Supported by an educational grant from AstraZeneca.


Target Audience

This program is intended for physicians, nurse practitioners, physician associates/physician assistants, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who care for patients with heart failure and/or chronic kidney disease.

Program Learning Goal

The goal of this program is to improve the knowledge and competence of learners in effort to optimize treatment for patients with heart failure

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Describe the 4 basic pillar drug classes recommended by guideline-directed medical therapy to treat patients with heart failure 

  • Explain the role of potassium homeostasis in the body; the definition, clinical presentation, and mechanisms of hyperkalemia; and the major clinical challenges associated with maintaining normal serum potassium concentrations for patients with heart failure and comorbid chronic kidney disease

  • Discuss the latest evidence regarding the benefits of starting, continuing, and maintaining RAAS inhibitor treatment in a range of patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease and how to successfully manage hyperkalemia and its recurrence in these patients


Clinical Care Options, LLC (CCO) requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose all financial conflicts of interest (COI) they may have with ineligible companies. All relevant COI are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to CCO policy. CCO is committed to providing its learners with high-quality CME/CE activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.

The faculty reported the following relevant financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they have with ineligible companies related to the content of this educational activity:

Primary Author

Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FHFSA

Professor of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, Texas

Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FHFSA: consultant/advisor/speaker: Abbott, Abiomed, American Regent, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cardurion, Cyotkinetics, Daiichi Sankyo, Johnson & Johnson, Lantheus, Liva, Merck, Nova, Regeneron, Renovacor, Respicardia/Zoll, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Vifor.

Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, FAHA, FACC, FHFSA

Professor of Medicine
Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, FAHA, FACC, FHFSA: consultant/advisor/speaker: Boehringer Ingelheim.

The planners and content peer reviewers from Clinical Care Options, LLC do not have any relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Instructions for Credit

Participation in this self-study activity should be completed in approximately 1 hour. To successfully complete this activity and receive credit, learners must follow these steps during the period from October 23, 2023, through October 22, 2024:

1. Login or Sign Up for an account by clicking at the top of this page
2. Read the target audience, learning objectives, and faculty disclosures
3. View and study the content in its entirety
4. Submit answers to the post-test questions and evaluation questions online

You must receive a test score of 65% or better and respond to all evaluation questions to receive a certificate. After submitting the evaluation, you may access your online certificate by selecting the certificate link on the confirmation page. Records of all CME/CE activities completed can be found on the "My Certificates" page. There are no costs/fees for this activity.


This program has been made available online.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.


Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.


Joint Accreditation Statement
Joint AccreditationIn support of improving patient care, Clinical Care Options, LLC (CCO) is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.


Physician Continuing Medical Education

CCO designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nursing Continuing Professional Development
The maximum number of hours awarded for this Nursing Continuing Professional Development activity is 1 contact hour.

Physician Associate Continuing Medical Education
Joint AccreditationClinical Care Options has been authorized by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1 AAPA Category 1 CME credit. Approval is valid until October 22, 2024. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.